Proletarians of all countries, unite!


In this article we handle the recent developments in Ukraine, Belarus, the “French West Indies” and Chile. These issues are separated into the texts “On recent developments in Ukraine”, “On the so-called “hybrid attack””, “Masses Combat and Resist French Imperialism in Guadeloupe and Martinique”, “The Peasant Struggle in Maule”, “Don’t be fooled” and “100 years since the founding of the Communist Party of Chile”.


Tensions rise as Yankee imperialism, the sole hegemonic superpower, is reporting “unusual build-up of forces” around Ukraine and accuses Russian imperialism of planning a war in Ukrainei. NATO leader Jens Stoltenberg says this build-up is very concerning because” it is unprovoked and unexplained” among other thingsii. The so-called “NATO Response Force” (NRF) was alerted, ready to start a war within 5 days. At the end of November Putin said he is concerned about the activities of the USA on the Black Sea, and for a longer period of time, the Yankee imperialism has been tightening its grip on Ukraine militarily through NATO in form of training, weapons and troops. Russia has demanded the USA to give it “safety guarantees”, to prevent Ukraine from joining NATO. By the way it is noteworthy that all the eastern expansion of NATO is a violation of the 4+2 contract. Hence roles are defined, Russia is facing an ever tightening encirclement by the Yankees and acts in this sense “defensive”. In talks with the Ukrainian president Volodymyr Zelenskyi, US officials have promised “unwavering support” to Ukraine against “Russian aggression.” They have warned that the Yankees will not tolerate a Russian attack without a military response.

The German media writes that while Biden and Putin held talks over the situation in Ukraine, German imperialism and the so-called EU should together give an impulse to their own format of a meeting, in the ”Normandieformat”iii, to make their voice heard and to participate in the negotiations. The German minister of foreign affairs also threatened Putin with the stopping of the Nordstream pipeline, so that gas would not be transported to Europe through Ukraine as part of sanctions. This as well as all the sanctions and embargoes is a direct attack on the weak Russian economy (comparable to that of Italy) that is first and foremost based on the export of resources.

Ukraine is a vast country at the border of Russia, with important transport routes, access to the Black Sea and natural resources. Control of this region therefore is very important to the imperialists, for Russian imperialism to guarantee its own safety and status in competition with Yankee imperialism, and for Yankee imperialism to maintain its hegemony in Eurasia and to further enclose the encirclement of Russia.

In 2013/14, protests erupted against then-president Viktor Yanukovyts, who abandoned a plan that would have paved the way for Ukraine to become increasingly under the influence of German imperialism through the EU and eventually led to him being oustediv. The masses fought and shed their blood, but were led by country-selling elements, into the lap of other imperialists, the Yankee imperialism and the EU, dominated by German imperialism. At the same time, some factions of the bourgeoisie in Eastern Ukraine were concerned about their livelihoods, as they were dependant on Russian imperialism and base themselves on the widespread chauvinistic thought of Panslavism, led by “Mother Russia”. A separatist movement started in Eastern Ukraine, against the new government, backed by Russian imperialism.

Yankee imperialism and the EU, dominated by German imperialism, backed the other faction of the bourgeoisie. It is to note that many of the events where the masses are rebelling, without a Communist Party, they were misled by country-selling elements and imperialists taking advantage of them. After 2014, this war has remained “simmering”, with occasional clashes and tensions, and now it has become more intense again.

“Unprovoked and unexplained” says Stoltenberg, vowing to “hand in hand” with the EU to combat any “hybrid threats”.

At the same time, the imperialist within the EU are increasing militarization and planning a “permanent toolbox” to combat “constant hybrid threats”v, and it seems in the light of the recent “migrant crisis” on Belarus-Poland border that they blame Russian imperialism as the culprit for “orchestrating” this “hybrid operation” against the EU. It is notable that for a longer period, NATO has been supplying Ukraine with arms, troops and training, and Yankee officials say that they are considering Ukraine’s membership in the NATO a possibility. So the recent developments are not really so unprovoked and unexplained – in the deepening general crisis of imperialism, the imperialists are plotting against each other and playing cat and mouse, causing disturbances for each other and measuring their powers in the competition between them. It is always to bear in mind (therefore we are constantly repeating this) that the imperialists contradiction debeloped selbs in collusion and struggle, with collusion being temporary and relative and struggle is permanent. It is always present ….

Yankee imperialism has in its interest to tighten its encirclement of Russia and to expand its leeching to new areas. Of course, Russia has to answer this threat on its gates. Using “Russian aggression” as the reason, the Yankee imperialism is further increasing its military intervention in Ukraine. Notably, the Yankee officials have said that they want to avoid direct US military response, but the NATO will “respond” in case Russia attacks Ukraine. Yankee imperialism will once again use the people of the oppressed countries as cannon fodder in their own imperialist plots. As part of the tactic of Yankee imperialists to further encircle Russia, they also set new sanctions.

The US-backed Zelenskyi goverment is struggling to maintain popularity among the masses. The masses are tired of empty promises and there is anti-goverment protests reported in Kiev recently. They claim that they have discovered a Russia-backed coup plot, but mostly it seems to be an excuse to increase militarization and attempt at deceiving the masses with lies of an “external threat”vi.

The masses in Ukraine want change, and the bourgeoisie will not give them this change – they only have empty promises and fairytales, they will let the precious blood of the masses be shed in vain for just another exploiter. The only way the Ukrainian people will crush their exploiters and oppressors is through reconstituting the Communist Party of Ukraine and through the people’s war, led by a Marxist-Leninist-Maoist militarized party. Imperialist war means misery and destruction for the masses, but the people’s war means principally building the new.

We emphasise the torch and guiding role of the current and coming people’s wars in showing the way and pushing forward the development of the subjective forces of the revolution in situations such as those in the Ukraine. This is how the world revolution develops, every people’s war is to develop the revolution in every country in and for the service of the world proletarian revolution. This is in Lenin’s military programme of the proletarian revolution, what is appropriate is to apply it to the present conditions of the world proletarian revolution. Moreover, Chairman Mao has explained this relationship as follows:

“The First World War shook the whole world. The Russians made the October Revolution and created the world’s first socialist state. Under the leadership of Lenin and Stalin, the revolutionary energy of the great proletariat and the great working people of Russia, hitherto dormant and imperceptible to outsiders, suddenly erupted like a volcano, and the Chinese, as well as all mankind, began to look at the Russians with different eyes. Then, and only then, did an entirely new era in Chinese thought and life begin. They found Marxism-Leninism, the truth of universal application, and the face of China began to change.

It was through the Russians that the Chinese found Marxism. Before the October Revolution, the Chinese not only did not know Lenin and Stalin, they did not even know Marx and Engels. The cannon fire of the October Revolution brought Marxism-Leninism to us. The October Revolution helped the advanced men of China, as well as those of the whole earth, to adopt the proletarian world outlook as an instrument for studying the destiny of their country and for reconsidering their own problems. To follow the path of the Russians: such was the conclusion. In 1919, the May Fourth Movement took place in China. In 1921, the Communist Party of China was founded.

(…) The vanguard of the Chinese proletariat learned Marxism-Leninism after the October Revolution and founded the Communist Party of China. It immediately entered the political struggles and only now, after twenty-eight years of a winding road, has it achieved the fundamental victory.

(…) The Chinese revolution, led by the Communist Party of China, has made tremendous advances, both in theory and in practice, and this has radically changed the face of China”vii


In the beginning of November, tensions rose on the Belarus-Poland border as thousands of people struggled to cross the border in order to seek asylum in the “EU”. Most of the people are Iraqi Kurds, Syrians and Afghans. “The West” has accused Belarus of pushing the migrants towards the EU, or even flying them in, in a so-called “hybrid operation” or “hybrid attack”. In response, Poland has deployed security forces to beat the migrants back to Belarus. Masses of migrants fight with the military police, throwing rocks and bottles at them and cutting barbed wire fence in order to desperately find a better life in the EU. Poland has banned journalists and humanitarian aid from entering the border area. Reports state that people have died in the freezing cold of Polish woodsviii. Still, the migrants would rather die trying than return to the destruction and suffering imperialism has brought about in their native countries. In the end of November the EU announced new sanctions to Belarus in response to the situationix. Belarus has also started “helping” hundreds of migrants to return to their home countries by organising deportation flightsx.

Especially in countries bordering Russia the bourgeois press and politicians are depicting the migrants themselves as a weapon, pointed at stable European countries by “the last dictator in Europe”, Lukashenko, as well as Russian imperialism. Russia and Belarus deny these accusations and accuse the EU of human rights violations. According to some “western” sources, the migrants were brought to the border forciblyxi. Others state that the migrants were “aided” to the border by Belarus. These claims are denied by Belarus and Russiaxii. Migration is caused by imperialism and goad its contradictions, and the imperialists use it like a spear against each other.

Immigration is a matter that shakes the illusion of unity among the states of the European Union. Poland has been known as a state with a “hard” line on immigration, and refusing to carry its share of asylum seekers during the so-called refugee crisis that started in 2015. The EU accuses Belarus of trying to shake the stability of major imperialist countries such as Germany by causing a “flood” of migrants. The different imperialists within Europe (in collusion and struggle) have very well in mind the movements of the “barbarian” masses inside the borders of the Roman Empire, in the midst of their decline, which brought the Western Roman Empire to an end with the capture of Rome.

It is on one hand true that refugees cause problems for the European imperialists, and shake their stability. They are an indication of the general crisis of imperialism, and are poor people not well integrated into imperialist countries. They are the unwanted wanted, because they are over-exploited in conditions comparable to those of workers in colonial or semi-colonial countries. They are the “Irish” of Europe. That is why they need to sift them to make them useful for the production and reproduction of labour power. In the imperialist countries there is an ageing of the population which goes hand in hand with a decrease of births. Germany, according to official statements, needs at least half a million immigrants a year until the middle of the present century, in order to maintain the functioning of the different sectors of the economy and to return the deferred wages in the form of income to the pensioners.

The economy of the imperialist states needs the labour force of the immigrants and their descendants; but deprived of the rights of the other workers, as a cheap labour force, they are put in this condition and then accused of coming to steal the “welfare of the others”. The ideal for the imperialists is to be able to sift it well, that is, to take only those who will be of most use to them now and in the future and to reject those who may be inconvenient or a burden because of their little or no “useful life”. Moreover, much of what is in the burgeois media and what the representatives of the imperialists say, is to facilitate the exploitation of the immigrants with less or few rights in a semi-servile condition, to separate this broad and deep mass from the rest of the class, to politically manipulate this division of the class promoted by them for their collusion and electoral struggle in the replacement of reactionary authorities and to further reactionaryise the state and the bourgeois right. This corresponds to one aspect of this contradiction, the other and main aspect for us is that this deep and deep mass will grow more and more not only in the imperialist countries of Europe but also in the USA, Japan, China, etc.

Social-imperialist China also has its “Irish”, but they are the same Chinese citizens who have been expelled to the cities to serve as cheap and disenfranchised labour for the Chinese imperialists and foreign capital. The imperialists need the immigrants and use them as mercenary troops in the complex series of wars in which they are sinking.

In the question of immigration, the signs of the collapse of empires since ancient times are expressed, i.e. the use of mercenary armies from the colonial or semi-colonial countries and, also, the parasitism or decomposition, because the imperialist countries, more and more, live not only on what is produced abroad by the export of capital, but, more and more, an increasing part of the labour force they employ in the imperialist countries themselves has been produced abroad.

This problem of large population movements from the oppressed countries to the imperialist countries has to do with the three contradictions of the world today. It is the development of the main contradiction that determines the ups and downs of migration flows, as well as the crisis in which the oppressed countries are struggling, where on the basis of semi-feudalism and imperialist oppression, a bureaucratic capitalism subject to the needs of imperialism is developing. It is thus an expression of the greater parasitism or decomposition of imperialism, a sick, dying father and his son, bureaucratic capitalism, a sick, dying son. It is a sign of the complex series of wars, of the 50-100 year period” in which imperialism will be wiped off the face of the earth.

From the little we have said about the problem, we can see what the population policy of the imperialists in the EU is oriented towards. They will say, that this causes challenges for the “welfare” systems of the European imperialist countries. But, as we have seen, the European imperialists have an interest in keeping the problem “out of sight, out of mind”. Therefore, they have taken steps to “secure their borders” by paying large sums of money to Turkey. This is to shift to third countries their responsibility towards the population of the countries suffering from the imperialist war of aggression, because as occupying powers they are obliged by their own international law to protect and care for those populations with all indisposable. They fail to do so. They resort to their lackeys like Erdogan to park them in the refugee camps on payment. And also to prevent the immigrants from entering the imperialist countries without conditions and without examination. They want to get all the advantages of the mass of immigrants who are able to work and to suppress the risks and disadvantages of the lesser ones entering the territory of the EU. “Refugee camps” where people are forced to live like animals in inhuman conditions, waiting for years for a legal status (this as an official expression of what we have written here on the filtering and selection based on the benefits) as an asylum seeker in Europe (the second filtering and selection), have been set up.

Reports also state that for example Greek authorities are committing “pushbacks” where they, against international bourgeois law, prevent migrants from seeking asylum, sometimes shoving people back into small boats to the open Mediterraneanxiii. Therefore, the route via Belarus seems easier to many.

Hybrid attack”

The situation is largely referred as an attack, the people fleeing the misery in their home countries, that means the imperialist oppression, bureaucratic capitalism and semi-feudalism, even willing to defy death, in hopes of a more stable life in Europe, are referred as weapons by the bourgeois media in Europe. There is speculations of Russia being the culprit behind the “attack” and in countries like Poland, Finland and Estonia the reaction is concerned about these hybrid threats, crying for closed borders and emergency laws to answer to different kinds of “hybrid threats”. NATO defines hybrid threats as: “Hybrid threats combine military and non-military as well as covert and overt means, including disinformation, cyber attacks, economic pressure, deployment of irregular armed groups and use of regular forces. Hybrid methods are used to blur the lines between war and peace, and attempt to sow doubt in the minds of target populations. They aim to destabilise and undermine societies.”xiv A hybrid threat can therefore mean pretty much anything, but is often used in regards of Russian imperialism and Russian version of the “low intensity warfare”. This word has become a catch-phrase for the reaction to increase militarization and warmongering as well as to inflame chauvinism to pit masses against masses.

The contradictions are real and are connected to the three fundamental contradictions, on the basis of the main contradiction that is oppressed nations – imperialism. There is speculation in “western” media about the involvement of Russian imperialism. It surely might be in the interest of Russian imperialism to cause problems for “western” imperialists, but it is hard to establish for sure how much Russian imperialism is involved, or how much it is influencing the conflict. Taking into account the nature of the Belorussian state as a semi-colony of Russian imperialism, and the recent developments in deepening “military co-operation” between the states, or Russian military intervention, and the sharpening contradictions among imperialists, it is possible that the Lukashenko regime might be acting in favour of Russian imperialism. The EU has also made sanctions against Belarus, pushing the bourgeoisie of Belarus more and more into the lap of Russian imperialism. Lukashenko has also threatened the EU with letting migrants in if the sanctions are not revoked. As the EU accuses Belarus (and Russian imperialism) of coldly using the innocent in their game, Belarus and Russian imperialism are using the situation to accuse the western imperialists of human rights violations and mocking their handling of the situation. The cynicism comes from both sides. At the same time, tensions rose because Russian imperialism stationed all kind of armed forces close to the Ukrainian border for a manoeuvre that ended on 25th of December – a matter that has in some statements by the EU and NATO leaders been tied to the situationxv.

The EU has reacted by denouncing this “attack” and highlighting the importance of “securing our borders”. It gave Poland, Lithuania and Latvia a permission to detain the migrants up to 16 weeks in “special asylum processing centres”, as normal rules require that the appeal for asylum needs to be registered in six days and the should be processed in four weeksxvi. Once again, international law and “human rights”, rules of their very own order, set up by themselves, mean very little to the imperialists.

Leaders of the imperialist alliances EU and NATO, in collusion and struggle, vowed in a meeting in November to work hand in hand to combat any “hybrid threats”, and that they will be stronger togetherxvii. At the same time as there is talk about deepening co-operation with NATO, dominated by Yankee imperialism, this is more collusion for more struggle, the EU is also discussing creating a 5000-soldier military force capable of rapidly combat “hybrid threats”. According to a high representative for EU foreign policy the EU is preparing to face constant destabilizing attacks with creating a “toolbox” (a typical postmodern expression) for combatting hybrid threatsxviii. The European imperialist countries are thus preparing themselves for the further sharpening of the contradictions between the imperialists and for more conflicts.

The creation of armed forces for the “EU” will not be an easy task, due to the contradictions between the imperialists in the “Union” and the fact that several EU countries are already part of NATO. There are no “imperialist blocs” but imperialist alliances in collusion and struggle, always under hegemony of one over the others. If they would become a reality, they would serve the interest of the hegemonic imperialist in the EU, German imperialism, and would not be strong enough to seriously threaten the sole hegemonic superpower, Yankee imperialism. However, this talk of needing a stronger EU, “we vs. them” and being attacked is part of the development of militarization in bourgeois states in Europe, trying to feed the masses lies of unity and that the bourgeois states are “ours”.

Poland has established a long deep-militarised zone along the border, where no civilians except for the residents of the area are allowed to enter. The military police is beating people trying to cross the border and using tear-gas against them. There is also unconfirmed reports of shots firedxix. The Polish prime minister is saying that closing the border is of “national interest”, but that the attack is directed against “all of us”, meaning the whole of EU countriesxx. Suddenly, Poland that has long been against the integration into the EU and accused of violating the “values” of the EU, is considering the EU as “us”. And suddenly, the EU turns a blind eye to the violations against international law and “human rights”.

Poland has also warned to invoke the 4th article of NATO. The Latvian foreign minister stated that if Poland or Lithuania invokes this article, Latvia will support it. The 4th article of NATO means requesting consultation from NATO over military matters if “the territorial integrity, political independence or security of any of the parties is threatened.”xxi The question is not about supporting the other states to handle appeals for asylum and to organise these people the right to seek asylum, the question is about military matters to the reaction.

In Finland, an imperialist country that has a long border with Russia, the bourgeois “opposition” parties raised a question of making a change to the law of emergency that would allow closing the border and stopping taking any asylum seekers in case of a “hybrid threat”. This was how ever opposed by the parties in the governmentxxii. The law of emergency is a set of laws that can be put in to action in case of different unusual and critical conditions, and has been used during the pandemic. Mostly this law is modelled for wartimes, and the Finnish parliament has announced in the light of the pandemic the law will renewed to make it more suitable to “modern threats”, to make it easier to enable this law and to walk over constitutional rights of the people. Even though the government did not support such blatant ignoring of the international law yet, they however consider the situation as a “hybrid operation started by Belarus”, and the Finnish border control has increased their “control of foreigners”xxiii.

The Finnish president has also raised concerns that the current laws don’t have enough tools for handling such a “hybrid attack” and the laws should be changed. There has been also discussion that the emergency laws could be enabled if Russia tried to use migrants against Finland. Russian imperialism seems to be the main concern of many of these countries. Even as far as in Finland and Estonia the bourgeoisie is concerned about the situation and considering that their state is under attack to justify accelerating militarization.

The masses fight back

The migrants do not give up without a fight. They reportedly shout “Europe or death!” and fight the heavily armed Polish military police with rocks and bottlesxxiv. They are determined to find a better life in Europe, in imperialist countries whose well-fare is founded on the exploitation of oppressed nations, whose doing the suffering in the migrants’ home countries is. The right to seek asylum is a human right according to bourgeois laws, but as always, this is just a bourgeois concept; the grounds for asylum are arbitrarily decided and human rights mean nothing in the end. The so-called European Union will rather let even children freeze in the woods than to grant them a safe way into Europe. In the conflict, both sides are weaponizing people: they are using them as pawns in their own game, Belarus on the one hand to cause problems for the EU and the EU to justify increasing militarization.

Revolutionary forces are developing all over the world, and the activity of the masses is rising everywhere. Their hatred and willingness to fight against imperialism that weighs heavy on their backs is increasing, and they cry for the Communist Parties of the world to be reconstituted to lead them to crush imperialism once and for all in people’s wars, for a better life for the masses, to end the suffering and exploitation imperialism causes. At the same time, the imperialists are arming, they are preparing for a war, they are trying to poison the minds of masses with nationalist passions and justifying the all-around militarization of society. But they cannot uphold the illusions for long: their ugly, true faces are showing and their lies will be uncovered.


As a new surge of Covid-19 cases is unfolding, the imperialist states have used this opportunity to unleash yet another wave of new reactionary “corona-restrictions” on the masses. This latest wave has caused the water to overflow in places all over the globe. In the French colonies in the Antilles, also known as the “French West Indies”, a wave of militant mass struggles is brewing in Guadeloupe, and it is sending ripples to Martinique.

The masses in the colonies are filled with hatred for imperialism. Guadeloupe and Martinique are no exception. In these colonies, the masses have a deep distrust and resentment for the farcical “health concerns” of imperialism. In the 70s to the 90s, French imperialist monopolies utilized the insecticide chlordecone on the banana plantations in Guadeloupe and Martinique. Already in the early 70s it was recognized as a hazardous substance. Even after the World Health Organization classified it as a possible carcinogen – a substance causing cancer, the French imperialists continued to use it in its colonies for more than a decade. Consequently, Guadeloupe has among the highest rates of prostate cancer in the world. Martinique has also been plagued with high rates of prostate, stomach, and breast cancer.

In Guadeloupe, unemployment is rampant. A third of the population live below the poverty line. Despite salaries being lower than in France, the cost of living is higher, as French imperialism maintains subjugation through keeping Guadeloupe reliant on imports. Despite Guadeloupe consisting of prime fertile land, the “French overseas department” in Guadeloupe still imports 80% of food.

The masses here are burdened by the crushing weight of the three mountains oppressing them; namely imperialism, feudalism and bureaucratic capitalism. Subjugated to severe poverty by French imperialism. Pierced by the yoke of colonialism. When France in November announced they would impose a new wave of “corona-measures”, among which was compulsory vaccination of health workers, the masses in Guadeloupe exploded. This was the drop that caused the chalice to overflow.

Trade unions initiated an indefinite general strike starting on the 15th of November – the deadline for health workers to be vaccinated before suspension without pay. For several nights in a row, the masses engaged in combative protests. Barricades were erected in strategic points, cars set ablaze, and buildings burnt to the ground. On Friday the 19th of November, 200 French elite police forces were sent to the island, and a curfew lasting from 6 P.M. to 5 A.M. was imposed after five nights of combative protests. But this could not put a lid on the struggle of the masses, on the contrary, the struggle of the masses just intensified over the weekend. On Sunday the 21st, French gendarme reported that an armoury had been looted. Also on the 21st, French colonial authorities reported that shots had been fired at French police and gendarme.

This sent waves to the island of Martinique, as the masses there also threw themselves into struggle. On November 22nd, trade unions initiated a general strike against the new reactionary “corona-measures” as well as against inflation. The masses engaged in combative protests, and here as well, French colonial authorities reported of shots being fired at the police.

In Guadeloupe, the general strike is organized by the LKP (Liyannaj Kont Pwofitasyon / United Against the Profiteers) – a coalition that was originally founded by the major trade unions in the country: the UGTG, CGTG, CTU, SPEG and FSU. Several other political organizations would later join the coalition. In the previous capitalist cyclical crisis of overproduction, the LKP initiated a general strike in December of 2008 against inflation and for the increase of wages. The general strike ended when the LKP agreed on a deal with the state, however the wage increase was limited and did not cover all the workers.

We uphold that the strike is the principal form of economic struggle and that there are both economic and political strikes, and moreover that in the economic sphere, strikes are “guerrilla warfare” fighting for wage increases. But with regards to the 2008-strike, we refer to what the Communist Party of Peru point out with regards to strikes in the document May Directives for Metropolitan Lima: “In every struggle the time comes to dialogue, but at the negotiating table you can only win what you have already won at the battlefield; that is a fundamental military and political criteria.”xxv

We reaffirm the importance of what the document says about strikes with regards to the proletariat: “The strike, then, must be handled firmly and astutely, not only by teaching the class how it’s a good and necessary tool, but also by teaching its limitations. With the strike, you do not conquer Power, nor break the vicious circle in which this old capitalist system (today in its imperialist phase) subjects the class.”xxvi

Moreover, applicable also to Guadeloupe, we reaffirm what the party underscores: “Always keep in mind that what has been conquered can be lost as a result of capitalism’s cyclical economic crises. Therefore, what corresponds is to break that vicious circle, to destroy the capitalist system, which in Peru is at its bureaucratic stage, under the control of imperialism and subjected to semi-feudalism. Hence, the need to link the vindicating economic struggle with the struggle for Power can only be achieved by conquering Power, exercising and defending it. Only then we will be able to change the old system, and create and develop a new one: socialism, with the dictatorship of the proletariat and communism as the final goal. This will be achieved going through the first stage: the democratic revolution, the joint class dictatorship, the People’s Republic of Peru with the People’s War, will be achieved. There is no other way to accomplish this objective.”xxvii

The CGTG (Confédération générale du travail de Guadeloupe / General Confederation of Labour of Guadeloupe), one of the major trade unions on the island, is tied to the ‘Guadeloupe Communist Party’ (PCG). In 2002 Jean-Marie Nomertin, a member of the Trotskyist group Combat Ouvrier, was elected General Secretary of CGTG. With this, it becomes clear that the party does not control and lead the union, and this is problematic in a very fundamental way. It is in contradiction with the Marxist theory of the party in the sense that: 1) It counterpoises the party to the masses. As the Communist Party of Peru points out this is incorrect because: “The Party is the highest social organization of the working class”xxviii and moreover 2) this makes the party a supplement to the trade union instead of its leading axis. Comrade Stalin pointed out that: “The Party must regard itself not as … a gratuitous supplement to the trade unions, as certain Anarcho-Syndicalist elements sometimes claim it should be, but as the highest form of class association of the proletariat, the function of which is to lead all the other forms of proletarian organisations”xxix and to conclude, as the Communist Party of Peru points out 3) this practice is based on “the false concept that political parties must not lead workers’ unions, which is contrary, opposed to Marxism”xxx

Guadeloupe and Martinique being colonies, they retain a semi-feudal character, and this naturally entails the struggle of the peasantry. Particularly in Guadeloupe, the struggle for land has been a central issue. There are regular struggles between peasants on the one side and the representatives of Guadeloupean gamonalismo on the other. There are a myriad of different farmer and peasant organizations engaged in judicial or extrajudicial struggles for the right to land, some of which have a clear reformist character. We do not however know enough about the different organizations in general, nor about their different class characters, however their quantity points to the fact that the struggle for land and the contradictions in the countryside in Guadeloupe are deep and comprehensive.

After decline since the early 60s, starting in 1970 there was a major sugar factory crisis in Guadeloupe. In 1973 a major sugar factory owned by the company ‘Compagnie agricole du Comté de Lohéac’ (CRCL) went bankrupt. The bankruptcy made it unclear who now had the judicial right to the land previously utilized for sugar plantations for the factory. The vultures at CACL insisted on their right to ownership of the land as they turned into big landowners. In 1999 Hubert de Jaham became the manager of the company as he inherited the 60% share his father owned in the company. He also inherited capital acquired through the exploitation of the peasants and the surplus value of the labor of the workers, and he used this capital to buy the remaining 40% of the company. This has made him one of the major landlords of Guadeloupe and a class-archenemie of the peasants.

The French colonial National Forestry Office (ONF) manages land and assures the access of Capital to land at the expense of the peasants, bringing on bureaucratic capitalism to the countryside on the base of latifundio and new forms of semi-servility. This is exemplified with the case in Goyave, where the ONF made a deal with the company SICA-LPG which granted SICA-LPG land for their banana production. Banana trees on the plantation has several times been chopped down, and in 2020 this caused damage worth tens of thousands of euros. An organization of peasants called the Union of Small Planters of Cadet Sainte-Rose (Syndicat des petits planteurs de Cadet Sainte-Rose) has mobilized against the SICA-LPG and the ONF, and occasionally they are engaged in judicial battles. Some however are starting to acknowledge that this issue can only be “settled with a gun”xxxi.

With regards to the Trotskyist character of Nomertin, what implications does this have for the movement in Guadeloupe? Comrade Stalin correctly pointed out that “Trotskyism is disbelief in the forces of our revolution, disbelief in the alliance between the workers and peasants, disbelief in the bond.”xxxii On the prospective question of the peasantry, Lenin stated that: “Today the question of the peasant movement has become vital not only in the theoretical but also in the most direct practical sense. We now have to transform our general slogans into direct appeals by the revolutionary proletariat to the revolutionary peasantry.”xxxiii and “The peasants must know that the red banner which has been raised in the towns is the banner of struggle for the immediate and vital demands, not only of the industrial and agricultural workers, but also of the millions and tens of millions of small tillers of the soil.”xxxiv Finally, counter-posed to the negation of the role of the peasantry by Trotskyism, Lenin put forward the correct slogan: Forward, workers and peasants, in the common struggle for land and freedom!xxxv

In the 70s, a wave of peasant strikes and land occupations swept across Guadeloupe. After prolonged struggle, the French colonial authorities introduced a so-called “land reform” (their agrarian measures) in 1980. However, it is obvious that the question of land is not yet resolved, and in fact it can never be resolved until the three mountains are swept away – and this can only be realized through the New Democratic Revolution with People’s War, when the peasantry as the base is united with the proletariat as the leading force – under the leadership of a Marxist-Leninist-Maoist Communist Party.

On Friday the 26th of November, the French state delayed the mandatory vaccination of health workers till’ December 31st. On the 27th of November, the “Ministry of Overseas Affairs” of the French state, which should rightly be dubbed “Ministry of Colonial Affairs”, “offered to discuss greater autonomy” for Guadeloupexxxvi. We reiterate what the Communist Party of Peru has stated: “… you can only win what you have already won at the battlefield” – and it is clear that the militant struggles of the masses in Guadeloupe – and also in Martinique – are yielding results. That struggle is a perquisite to progress, the cause of concessions from the enemy – is an irresistible historical law.

With this in mind, we uphold the victories gained through the struggle, but hold no illusions of what this means, and we encourage the masses in Guadeloupe, Martinique, and the rest of the world to hold no illusions of what this means. When Guadeloupe one day attains independence from France, this will only be due to the struggle of the masses. If this is merely a concession of imperialism (and not the result of a People’s War led by a Marxist-Leninist-Maoist Communist Party), the character of Guadeloupe will merely shift from colony to semi-colony. The masses of the semi-colonies in Africa, Asia and Latin-America shout this in affirmation. We reiterate: The only thing that would bring about liberation for Guadeloupe, for Martinique, for the world – is People’s War until Communism. We are confident that our comrades, the genuine revolutionaries in Guadeloupe and Martinique, will step forward and in time assume the leadership of the movement in their respective countries to generate their Communist Party of new type as Marxist-Leninist-Maoist militarised parties, and place the red banner of Marxism-Leninism-Maoism, Principally Maoism in command of the revolution.

With regards to the global and historical context in which these developments are unfolding, we reaffirm what the Communist Party of Peru point out: “… we are in the strategic offensive of the world revolution, we live during the sweeping away of imperialism and reaction from the face of Earth within the next 50 to 100 years, a time marked by violence in which all kinds of wars take place.”xxxvii and what Chairman Gonzalo says on the subject: “We have the great fortune to live in these decades in which imperialism and reaction will be swept away, because what Chairman Mao foresaw will be attained. If we do not see it ourselves, others who follow us will, because the legions are increasing more and more.”xxxviii Even more so now, when revolution proves its character as the main historical and political tendency in todays world with the development of the new great wave of the proletarian world revolution and the proletarit and the peoples entering the struggle in a new period of revolutions.

The imperialists feel it everywhere, but lately it has perhaps gotten particularly hot for French imperialism. The masses combat and resist in its colonies and semi-colonies. As we see in Guadeloupe and Martinique, the masses throw themselves into combative protests and take to arms against the running dogs of French imperialism. Earlier this year, the French imperialist war of aggression in the Sahel-region suffered a bitter defeat, again by the hands of the masses.

Moreover, in late November, masses in Burkina Faso blocked a French military convoy en route from the Ivory Coast to Mali, where the French military occupies an enclave as part of their war of aggression. The convoy was held up by masses blocking its way in the city of Bobo Dioulasso, the town of Kaya, and finally in the capital Ougadougou. In Kaya, the convoy was forced to turn back, and was stuck for several days between barricades erected by the masses. In total the convoy was held up for a week. The regime of the big landlord-bureaucratic state in Burkina Faso shut down the internet for several days to prevent the masses from exchanging information and to prevent masses elsewhere along the route of the convoy to be inspired. The French army responded to the civilian blockades with bullets. As the Communist Party of Peru points out, these running dogs of the reaction are “brave when confronting unarmed masses, but scared like rabbits when facing the guerrillas.”xxxix

As the convoy crossed the border into Niger it was met with even more resistance from the masses. As the convoy passed the city of Tera, clashes broke out between the masses and the French army, with the French army killing some and wounding even more. After being held up for a night, the convoy continued on the road to Niamey, but was held up by over a thousand masses. The masses were trying to take over the trucks of the convoy, which the Nigerian lackey gendarmes responded to with firing tear gas at the masses. Later down the road, the convoy would again and again be faced with resistance from the masses. In total, the convoy was also in Niger delayed for a week.

In the French colony of Corsica, a group calling itself the National Liberation Front of Corsica (FLNC) waged armed struggle starting in the 70s, and persisting for several decades until its leadership capitulated in 2014-2016. The organization splintered as a result, but in September of this year a video statement surfaced from a group calling itself the FLNC where they threaten the reinitiation of the armed strugglexl.

To conclude, we reaffirm the thesis that the oppressed countries, the colonies and semi-colonies, the third world – is the storm centre of the world revolution – and as Chairman Mao declared: “The storm is coming, the wind is howling in the tower.” We are entering a new wave of Proletarian World Revolution, and with it a high tide in the National Liberation struggle. As proclaimed in the Programme of Struggle against Imperialism: “Countries want independence, nations want liberation and peoples want revolution; this has become an irresistible historical trend”.

CHILE: THE PEASANT STRUGGLE IN THE MAULE. SEASONAL WORKERS IN THE MAULE. The electoral farce as a continuation of the crisis.

The precariousness and social abandonment of seasonal workers is a reality at national and regional level. According to the INE, from 2006 to date there is an average of 120,000 agricultural workers in the Maule region, the majority of whom are seasonal workers who in November, December and January give their sweat and blood in the harvests, packing and other tasks in the Chilean countryside. The harvesting and packing of cherries, blueberries and other fruits are the main products that enrich the big landowners who export the fruit to imperialist countries such as China, the USA and other powers.

The following graph shows the tendency of increasing masses of people going to work in the fields, with small exceptions (like the Covid-19 pandemic):

Number of people working in agriculture in the Maule region

As can be seen, between the 2006-2007 season and the 2013-2014 season, there was a 47.38% increase in the number of poor, medium and seasonal farmers, with the average number of workers between 2006 and 2020 being 120,050 workers.

Some of these people work as seasonal workers throughout the year. In spring-summer they work mainly in fruit harvests, mainly in the “a trato” modality or in the packings where they receive a basic salary plus bonuses for attendance and production, and in autumn-winter the jobs are mainly “al día”, with tasks such as pruning and other agricultural work. Others are seasonal workers only during the harvest season, as in the case of students, housewives or labourers who during the winter are engaged in studies, housework or construction and similar work.

In November 2019, the Maule region registered 535,323 “employed” workers, of which 125,812 are linked to agriculture. Of these, it is presumed (as the information must be less than the reality) from the figures provided by the INE that 64.12% would be seasonal workers:

80,677 would be seasonal workers according to INE figures.

Working conditions of seasonal workers

The working conditions of seasonal workers are extremely precarious. Most of them work without the protection of a contract and if in itself this situation under “normal” conditions makes life very difficult, now even more so in times of pandemic, where the old State announced that it will not deliver the Universal IFE and will “gamble” by prolonging and delivering only the IFE Laboral, where most of the seasonal workers will not be able to receive this bonus of help in times of economic crisis. The reason is that the IFE Laboral only considers those who did not have a contract for 3 months before September and then have been formally hired and have been paid their contributions since September 2021. As we have seen, the majority of seasonal workers do not and will not have a contract with which to apply, so the peasantry in general will be left out.

Then there are the few people who do get a contract. They are contracted under the “por faena” modality, a legal contract that gives the employer the power to declare that the work can end at any time and, therefore, the worker is unemployed. These contracts can last as long as a few months or a couple of days, which makes it impossible to have seniority and regular payment of social security contributions, among other problems. Cases of seasonal workers who have died and have not even compensated their families are also reported in Maule and throughout Chile.

Other existing threats such as unhealthy toilets or the lack of them in the fields, food poisoning provided by the employer, non-payment of overtime, harassment and sexual harassment of female colleagues by bosses and employers are the precariousness that seasonal workers are currently facing.

Concentration of land in few hands and semi-feudalism

This precariousness goes hand in hand with the unequal distribution of land. In Chile, latifundistas, who represent 0.89% of agricultural landowners, concentrate 74.49% of the land according to Oxfam’s 2016 data:

We can affirm that a few landowners have concentrated land while thousands of peasants do not own any land, including seasonal workers, and those who have very little.

As Chile is a semi-colonial and semi-feudal country, among seasonal workers this is expressed in a system of servitude which, in various forms in the 21st century, maintains aspects of feudalism. One of these is free labour, an example of which are the cases of peasants and seasonal workers who live on the estates, having to look after and maintain the installations and crops without being paid for it. Another case is payment in kind, where all or part of the payment is made in agricultural products and not in money. All this allows the landowning class to live as a parasite in luxury at the expense of the misery and oppression of the peasants, plunging the people into backwardness and hunger. Latifundia and serfdom have remained the pillars of the social, political and economic organisation of Chile.

There are those who have been confused into believing that the system in Chile, especially in the countryside, by not having the classic fiefdom system, is therefore “classic” capitalist. However, the establishment of the wage system and the adoption of machines do not erase the feudal character of large-scale property. They simply perfect the system of exploitation of the land and the peasant masses.

The countryside reflects bureaucratic capitalism and imperialist oppression.

We see how the peasant problem is a national problem, a problem of the majorities, which among the seasonal workers is expressed in the fact that almost all the harvested fruit is exported to the big imperialist powers, taking the national wealth with them and leaving only the scraps and leftovers in Chile. According to Simfruit data, countries such as China, USA, Canada, England and other European countries took 86.3% during the 2019 – 2020 season.

The main products exported were fresh fruit, with cherries, table grapes, avocados and blueberries being the 4 most exported fruits.

We see that the capitalism that develops in Chile depends on imperialism, therefore it is not a “classic” capitalism, but a backward one, without industrial development and mainly an exporter of raw materials: a bureaucratic capitalism.

The ruling classes that have amassed huge fortunes by becoming servants of the imperialist powers, owners of capital and land are the big bourgeoisie and the landowners, enemies of the people and especially of the masses of workers and peasants.

Creating and developing a new seasonal and peasant movement

The seasonal workers have been gradually raising different demands to improve their conditions and against this system of oppression, some of the most heartfelt of which are the following:

– Increased prices for payment for harvests, work in the packing houses and other agricultural work.

– Fixed and definite payment terms, enough of the boss paying when he wants to.

– Fixed contracts and payment of health and pension contributions by employers.

– Reduced working hours under the “per diem” system, better working hours for seasonal workers.

– Provision of safety equipment by the employer in the fields, such as hats, goggles, gloves, footwear and so on, as appropriate.

– Respect safety measures when applying “liquids” in the fields, do not expose seasonal workers to chemicals that damage their health.

– Inform and provide all the minimum safety elements for packing operators according to the danger to which they are exposed.

– An end to the system of contractors, dealing directly with the farms in which they work.

In our region, or at least in the province of Curicó, there are no known organisations that group together and defend the rights of seasonal workers, so one of the tasks of the moment is to agitate and propagate the need to create an organisation that promotes, fights for and defends the interests of seasonal workers, starting with the most heartfelt demands already mentioned.

However, even with such an organisation raising these demands, the efforts of the seasonal workers will quickly fizzle out if their organisation does not also fight for the most important political demand of the peasants at the moment: land for those who work it!

Little by little, a democratic seasonal workers’ movement will have to emerge that can shake up the country and especially the countryside. In this way, step by step, the abusive bosses, contractors and landowners can be buried.

Confiscating the land from the landlord class is an important step not only for the seasonal workers and peasants but for all the people of Chile, because it is a step forward in one of the tasks of the new democratic revolution.

If the peasant movement is led by the ideology and vanguard of the proletariat, it will be possible to hand over land to the peasantry after smashing the landlord class and its state, making it possible to erase serfdom forever and thus emancipate the peasantry from feudal agrarian relations. We can summarise it in 3 points:

1.Destruction of the latifundia, distribution of land to the peasants.

2.Confiscation or “expropriation without compensation”.

3. Execution by force, popular power.

Thus, the people will be able to develop the main form of struggle, especially in the countryside, and will be able to generate their main form of organisation, aiming at overthrowing the old state and completely emancipating the working class, peasants, intellectuals and other classes who wholeheartedly want to collaborate with the new democratic revolution.


55.5% of ELECTORAL POPULATION went to the polls on 19 December for the second round of elections for president, with a turnout of only 5% more than half of the electorate, i.e. it was a failure both in the first and second round. On December 19, with this low turnout, the next president of the old Chilean state, a landlord-bureaucratic state at the service of mainly US imperialism, was nominated. He was appointed for the period 2022-2026, Gabriel Boric, who won over the candidate of the Social Christian Front, José Antonio Kast. The results of the election in the first round show that the two candidates who made it to the second round will have little weight in the Senate. In the Chamber of Deputies, the two run-off candidates will also have difficulties, it was said, after the results of the first round in November, whichever candidate wins. So after the second round, the opportunist Boric will have to govern with the agreement of the two factions of the big bourgeoisie, the comprador and the bureaucratic, i.e. the government mechanism of the “concertación” of collaboration with pinochetism will be repeated.

Previously, after the first round, the Chilean CC issued a statement which we publish below:

The electoral farce as a continuation of the crisis.

Various candidates have been promising to solve this crisis that has been dragging on for decades, but the truth is that none of them is or will be able to end the crisis, with the elections being the way to legitimise a rotten system that is falling apart.

The 54% abstention rate on November 21 reflects the discredit of the old politics in the eyes of the masses, and now with the second round where the arch-reactionary J.A. Kast and the opportunist G. Boric will once again try to deceive the masses with false promises of prosperity and solutions to the problems that, as we see, are no longer only of our country but of the whole world.

Recabarren in 1921, having taken part in the elections and even being elected as a deputy, after having known this experience in person, left us a valuable lesson to be followed by those of us who want to truly transform reality in deeds:

“That tribune is what we need, because from every seat, from every stone, we can make a tribune from which we can say as much and more than what can be said from a parliament, with the advantage that the work done in the streets will always find followers, while from the parliaments we will not get a single one, because there are no human beings there but monsters, insensitive to the pain of others. What cannot be done from outside cannot be done from parliament. For the rest, continuing to send men to parliament means corroborating the regime of injustice, entrenching and perpetuating the crime erected as a system. “

With these words we give a battle cry against the ruling classes of any faction, from those linked to fascism as well as the “democrats”, calling on the people to follow the path of struggle which is the one that conquers and can defend our rights. The path of organisation, whether to oppose fascism in direct action or to raise mobilisations and popular demands can never be replaced by electoral participation every 4 years.






On 1 and 2 January 1922, the 4th Congress of the Socialist Workers Party, which became the 1st Congress of the Communist Party of Chile, was held in Rancagua. This date represents a milestone for the class and the people of Chile, as part of the proletariat and the peoples of the world: under the leadership of the master Luis Emilio Recabarren, the proletariat took the leap to the constitution of the Communist Party, as the Chilean section of the Communist International.

Communists and revolutionaries of Chile paid homage to this glorious date by hoisting 100 red flags for the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Party in Santiago and other parts of the country. This action marks the beginning of the centenary year, in which meetings and commemorative events will take place, highlighting the important task of taking up and developing Recabarren and reconstituting his Party.

100 red flags

In Santiago, on 2 January, banners with the red flag with the hammer and sickle were flying in different parts of the capital.

An emotional ceremony was held in front of the tomb of Luis Emilio Recabarren, in the General Cemetery of Santiago. There it was decorated with red flags with the hammer and sickle, commemorative words, salutes of honour and glory were given and the Communist International was intoned.

At the event, the importance of the declaration of principles of the Communist Party, adopted on 2 January 1922, was recalled, which recognised the necessity of the constitution of “a revolutionary vanguard organism, with clear purposes, precise directives” to destroy capitalist society, to organise the forces of the exploited classes and to be able to establish the dictatorship of the proletariat in the period of transition to communism. That party, in the epoch of Leninism, could be none other than the Communist Party, as the Chilean section of the Communist International.

The opportunists and revisionists, meanwhile, say that in 1922 the Party only changed its name, from POS to CP; that the organic functioning, etc. of the workers’ party also founded by Recabarren in 1912 was maintained, and they do not recognise this January 2 as the founding milestone. They put the organic before the political. They do not understand that although the Communist Party (Chilean Section of the Communist International) maintained the bulk of the militancy of the POS, it is a Party politically and ideologically distinct from the POS, but which did not manage to develop before Recabarren’s death in 1924 and was soon usurped by a right opportunist line which led it into revisionism and parliamentary cretinism.

The need to take up and develop Recabarren and reconstitute the Communist Party of Chile as a Marxist-Leninist-Maoist party, with the universally valid contributions of Chairman Gonzalo, was also raised at the Recabarren monument in the centre of the capital. Red flags with the hammer and sickle and commemorative posters were hung there.

In other places in Santiago and in the country commemorative actions were also carried out, posters were pasted and slogans were painted: Long live the 100 years of Recabarren’s party! Down with revisionism! Down with the false CP!

i https://edition.cnn.com/2021/12/03/europe/ukraine-russia-2021-tensions-explainer-cmd-intl/index.html

ii https://www.euronews.com/2021/11/28/eu-and-nato-vow-action-against-hybrid-threats-on-baltic-visit

iii https://www.spiegel.de/ausland/ukraine-olaf-scholz-und-emmanuel-macron-wollen-normandie-runde-wiederbeleben-a-cd176d89-ccf7-4123-b351-052c765d1984

iv International Crisis Group (2019): Rebels without a cause. Russia’s proxies in Eastern Ukraine. Europe report No 254

v https://www.archyde.com/the-eu-prepares-to-combat-a-permanent-hybrid-threat/

vi https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/nov/26/ukrainian-intelligence-warns-russia-backed-december-coup

vii Mao Tse-Tung, “On People’s Democratic Dictatorship”, 1949

viii https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/nov/09/poland-belarus-border-crisis-migrants-eu-explainer

ix https://www.reuters.com/world/europe/eu-envoys-say-hybrid-attack-is-legal-basis-new-belarus-sanctions-2021-11-10/

x https://www.reuters.com/world/middle-east/hundreds-more-migrants-leave-belarus-iraq-bound-flight-2021-12-04/

xi https://www.cbsnews.com/news/belarus-poland-border-crisis-migrant-soldiers-mass-as-eu-claims-hybrid-attack/

xii Аркументы и Факты – Европа No 46/2021

xiii https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/07/16/greece-investigate-pushbacks-collective-expulsions

xiv https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/topics_156338.htm

xv https://www.euronews.com/2021/11/28/eu-and-nato-vow-action-against-hybrid-threats-on-baltic-visit

xvi https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/dec/01/belarus-border-nations-should-be-able-to-detain-asylum-seekers-for-16-weeks

xvii https://www.euronews.com/2021/11/28/eu-and-nato-vow-action-against-hybrid-threats-on-baltic-visit

xviii https://www.archyde.com/the-eu-prepares-to-combat-a-permanent-hybrid-threat/

xix https://www.cbsnews.com/news/belarus-poland-border-crisis-migrant-soldiers-mass-as-eu-claims-hybrid-attack/

xx https://nypost.com/2021/11/22/poland-belarus-border-crisis-may-lead-to-something-worse/

xxi https://www.baltictimes.com/if_lithuania_or_poland_requests_invoking_nato_s_article_4__latvia_will_support_it_-_rinkevics/

xxii https://www.hs.fi/politiikka/art-2000008418748.html

xxiii https://yle.fi/uutiset/3-12186745

xxiv Комсомолская Правда в Европе No 46/2021

xxv The Communist Party of Peru: May Directives for Metropolitan Lima

xxvi ibid

xxvii ibid

xxviii ibid

xxix J. V. Stalin: The Prospects of the Communist Party of Germany and the Question of Bolshevisation

xxx The Communist Party of Peru: May Directives for Metropolitan Lima

xxxi Bourgeois news outlet francetvinfo.fr: En Guadeloupe, la question foncière au coeur de nombreux conflits

xxxii J. V. Stalin: Concerning the Question of the Proletariat and the Peasantry

xxxiii V. I. Lenin: The Proletariat and the Peasantry

xxxiv ibid

xxxv ibid

xxxvi Bourgeois Yankee news outlet U.S. News: Amid Riots, France to Consider Some Autonomy for Guadeloupe

xxxvii The Communist Party of Peru: The Line of Construction

xxxviii El Diario: Interview with Chairman Gonzalo

xxxix The Communist Party of Peru: May Directives for Metropolitan Lima

xl Bourgeois French news outlet Le Monde: En Corse, le FLNC menace d’un retour à la lutte armée